They Not Only Live Once – Towards Product-Service Systems for Repurposed Electric Vehicle Batteries
Today, two central issues interfere with a widespread use of electric vehicles (EVs): a limited convenience in terms of range and refueling as well as high costs. The expensive battery technology causes the better part of these costs. However, after about 8 to 10 years of operation and 120.000 driven kilometers, battery degradation leads to a reduced range and decreased acceleration. The battery should then be replaced. Repurposing and further using these batteries in less demanding applications forms a new source of income and might lower the costs of EVs. Despite suggestions for second life applications, the establishment of mature business models is still a long way off. One cause lies in the customers' uncertainty concerning the quality of repurposed electric vehicle batteries (EVBs). In this work, we suggest the design of product-service systems (PSS) to counter this uncertainty. We perform a literature review to identify central activities, actors, as well as challenges that shape an EVB's life cycle. Focusing on challenges that affect the customers' perception of an EVB's quality, we suggest examples for services and further PSS building blocks to address these challenges.
Electric Vehicle Batteries; Repurposing; Second Life; Product-Service Systems; EOL-IS